In 10% of cases, sleep apnea syndrome can be central (CSA). It is an anomaly of the control of the respiratory muscles and it causes the stop (apnea) or reduction (hypopnea) of breathing for periods greater than 10 seconds. It is often linked to heart failure. The reference method for diagnosing central apnea is the esophageal pressure measurement.
Central sleep apnea is classified into 6 categories, primary, Cheyne Stokes, secondary, breathing Periodic high, child and related to drug taken.
Reference treatment is ventilation by auto adjusting Continuous Positive Airway Pressure "CPAP" or bilevel pressure ventilator "bilevel".